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1) Peregall (adj.) – Equal.

Everyche other through great vyolence
By very force bare other unto grounde,
As full ofte it happeth and is founde,
Whan stronge doth mete with his /peregall/.

– Lydgate’s Troye, 1555

3it ther were any of power more than hee,
Or /peregalle/ unto his degre.

– Lydgate, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134

Pronunciation: /pErEgAl/

2) Gnide (v.) – To rub.

Herbes he sought and fond,
And /gnidded/ hem bituix his hond.

– Arthour and Merlin

And after /gnodde/ and wasche wel thi saflour bagge
in thilke ly3e with bothe thyn hondis, to thou se that
thi li3e hath take a faire colour of thi saflour bagge.

– MS. Sloane 73

Pronunciation: /gnid@/

3) Thue (n.) – Slave.

The crie was sone wide couth, among /thue/ and freo,
That seint Thomas scholde after him archebischop beo.

– Life of Thomas Beket

Pronunciation: /Tu@/

4) Fenestral (n.) – A small fenestre, or window. Before glass was in
general use, the fenestre was often made of paper, cloth, or canvass,
and it was sometimes a kind of lattice-work, or shutter ornamented
with tracery. In the sixteenth century, the term fenestre seems to
have been applied to a blind or shutter in contradistinction to a
glazed window.

Tho com thar in a fuyri arewe
At a /fenestre/ anon.

– MS. Laud. 108

Pronunciation: /fEnEstrAl/

5) Remissails (n.) – Orts; leavings.

The best morsell, have this inremembraunce,
Hole to thiself alway do not applye;
Part with thi felawe, for that is curtasie:
Lade not thi trenchour with many /remissailes/,
And fro blaknes alway kepe thi nailes.

– Lydgate’s Stans Puer ad Mensam, MS.

Pronunciation: /rEmIsaIls/

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1) Gytelscheppe (n.) – Recklessness.

Wylland, certes, I dyd it no3te,
Bot for /gytelscheppe/ of thoughte.

– R. de Brunne, MS. Bowes

Pronunciation: /gitElSEp@/

2) Wittande (n.) – Knowledge; knowing.

The fyft poynte may thai noght eschape,
That commounes with hym that the pape
Cursed has at hys /wyttande,/
Or to that curssyng es assentande.

– Hampole, MS. Bowes

Pronunciation: /witAnd@/

3) Baratour (n.) – A quarrelsome person.

One was Ewayne fytz Asoure,
Another was Gawayne with honour,
And Kay the bolde /baratour/.

– Sir Perceval

Pronunciation: /bArAtur/

4) Nithe (n.) – Wickedness.

But in pride and triechery,
In /nythe/ and onde and lecchery.

– Cursor Mundi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab

Pronunciation: /niT@/

5) Balsomate (adj.) – Embalmed.

He made his ymage of laton full clene,
In whiche he put his body /balsomate/.

– Hardyng’s Chronicle

Pronunciation: /bAlsOmAt@/

1) Eyrone (n.) – Eggs, also as eyren.

A wowndyt man schal kepe hym that he 3ete na
cheese, ne botur, ne /eyrone/, ne fysche of the see, ne
fruytte, ne flesche, but of a best that is geldit; and
he most kepe him fro fleschely talent wythe wymmen.

– Med. Rec. MS. Bright

Pronunciation: /aIr@n/

2) Menge (v.) – To mix; to mingle.

All my dedys ben full derke,
For they ben /menged/ with deedly synne.

– MS. Cantab. Ff. Ii. 38

For the /menggyng/ of the noyse of the see,
And of the flodes that than salle be.

– Hampole, MS. Bowes

Pronunciation: /mEng@/

3) Totty (adj.) – Dizzy; reeling.

So /toty/ was the brayn of his hede,
That he desirid for to go to bede,
And whan he was ones therin laide,
With hymself mervailously he fraide.

– MS. Rawl. C. 86

Pronunciation: /tOti/

4) Bonsour (n.) – A vault.

The butras com out of the diche,
Of rede gold y-arched riche;
The /bonsour/ was avowed al
Of ich maner divers animal.

– Sir Orpheo, ed. Laing, 325

Pronunciation: /bOnsur/

5) Repunge (v.) – To vex, or goad.

I am the king of Persia,
A large and fertil soil;
The Egiptians against us /repunge/,
As verlets slave and vile.

– King Cambises

Pronunciation: /rEpUndZ@/

1) Murne (adj.) – Sorrowful.

Ther lete we hem sojurne,
And speke we of chaunces hard and /murne/.

– Arthour and Merlin

Pronunciation: /murn@/

2) Caboche (v.) – To bend.

There nedeth no more but to /caboche/ his heed,
alle the over jawes stylle thereon,
and the labelles forsayd.

– MS. Bodl. 546

Pronunciation: /kAbOtS@/

3) Scellum (n.) – A thief. A cant term.

But if a drunkard be unpledg’d a kan,
Drawes out his knife, and basely stabs a man,
To runne away the rascall shall have scope;
None holds him, but cry, Lope, /scellum/, lope!

– Taylor’s Workes, 1630

Pronunciation: /skElum/

4) Demester (n.) – A judge. The term is still retained in the Isle of Man.

A yoth was thenne /demester/
Of Israel foure score 3eer.

– Cursor Mundi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab.

Pronunciation: /dEmEstEr/

5) Nubilated (adj.) – Clouded.

About the beginning of March, 1660, I bought accidentally
a Turkey-stone ring; it was then wholly serene;
toward the end of the moneth it began to be /nubilated/.

– Aubrey’s Wilts, MS. Royal Soc.

Pronunciation: /nubIlAtEd/

1) Setille (n.) – Seat.

Apon the /setyl/ of hys majeste
That day sal alle men before hym be.

– Hampole, MS. Bowes

Pronunciation: /sEtil/

2) Chinch (n.) – A miser.

Every avowter or unclene man that is a glotun or
/chynche/ schal never have erytage in the rewme of

– Wimbelton’s Sermon, 1388, MS. Hatton 57

Pronunciation: /tSintS@/

3) Fryke (adj.) – Fresh; active; lusty.

Thys day a man ys fresche and /fryke/,
And schewyth forthe a gladly chere.

– MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38

Pronunciation: /frik@/

4) Minch (n.) – A nun. The nunnery at Littlemore is still called the

There was a mynchun withinne that abbay tho,
The wheche was come off hey3e lynage.

– Chron. Vilodun

Pronunciation: /mintS/

5) Knape (n.) – A lad; a page.

Ac right now a litel /knape/
To Bedingham com with rape.

– Arthour and Merlin

So felle it that this cherlische /knape/
Hath lad this mayden where he wolde.

– Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134

Pronunciation: /knAp@/

1) Throly (adv.) – Earnestly; eagerly; hardly.

In at the durres thei /throly/ thrast
With staves ful gode ilkone;
Alas! alas! seid Robyn Hode,
Now mysse I litulle Johne.

– MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48

Pronunciation: /TrOli/

2) Scrit (n.) – A writing; a deed.

A /scrit/ of covenaunt i-mad ther was
Bytwene me and Sathanas.

– MS. Addit. 11307

He dyde on hys clothys astyte,
And to Seynt Jhone he wrote a /skryte/.

– MS. Harl. 1701

Pronunciation: /skrit/

3) Gorell (n.) – A great clownish lad.

Glotony that /gorell/ is the vjte. synne,
That men use of in delicat fedyng of mete.

– MS. Laud. 416

Pronunciation: /gOrEl/

4) Aseth (n.) – Satisfaction or amends for an injury.

We may not be assayled of tho trespas,
Bot if we make /aseth/ in that we may.

– MS. Harl. 1022

Here byfore he myght ethe
Sone hafe mad me /aseth/.

– MS. Lincoln A. i. 17

Pronunciation: /AsET/

5) Helych (adv.) – Loudly.

They herde in theire herbergage hundrethez fulle many,
Hornez of olyfantez fulle /helych/ blawene.

– Morte Arthure, MS. Lincoln

Pronunciation: /hElitS/

1) Hithe (n.) – A small port; a wharf.

For now is Culham /hithe/ i-com to an ende,
An al the contre the better, and no man the worse.

– Lelandi Itinerarium

Pronunciation: /hiT@/

2) Stum (n.) – Strong new wine, used for strengthening weak liquor.
According to Howell, stooming wine was effected by putting herbs and
infusions into it.

There strength of fancy, to it sweetness joynes,
Unmixt with water, nor /stum’d/ with strong lines.

– Brome’s Songs, 1661

Then to the Queen, let the next advance,
With all loyal lads of true English race;
That scorn the /stum’d/ notion of Spain and France.

– Songs of the London Prentices

Pronunciation: /stum/

3) Dwale (n.) – The night-shade. It is highly narcotic, and hence used
to express a lethargic disease.

Whenne Joseph had tolde this tale,
Thei fel as thei had dronken /dwale/,
Grovelynge doun on erthe plat.

– Cursor Mundi, MS. Coll. Trin. Cantab.

Pronunciation: /dwAl@/

4) Lingel (n.) – A shoemaker’s thread.

The cobler of Caunterburie, armed with his aul,
his /lingel/, and his last, presents himselfe a judiciall
censor of other mens writinges.

– The Cobler of Caunterburie, 1590

Pronunciation: /lingEl/

5) Brigantayle (n.) – Bringandine, an extremely pliable kind of armour,
consisting of small plates of iron sewn upon quilted linen or leather.

Of armis or of /brigantayle/,
Stood nothynge thanne upon batayle.

– Gower, MS. Soc. Antiq. 134

Pronunciation: /brigAntaIl@/

For some reason there wasn’t a word of the day on Friday. So this week we only get 4 new words to learn.

1) Peat (n.) – A delicate person.

A citizen and his wife the other day
Both riding on one horse, upon the way
I overtook, the wench a pretty peat,
And (by her eye) well fitting for the seat.

– Donne’s Poems

Pronunciation: /pEt/

2) Cendal (n.) – A species of rich thin silken stuff, very highly esteemed.

Her gomfainoun was of cendal Ynde,
Of gold ther were on thre coronne.

– Arthour and Merlin

Pronunciation: /sEndAl/

3) Sclatyre (v.) – To be negligent.

/Sclatyre/ thy clothys bothe schort and syde,
Passyng all mennes syse.

– MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38

Pronunciation: /sklAtir@/

4) Drihe (v.) – To endure.

For as me thenketh, I myght /drihe/
Without slepe to waken ever,
So that I scholde noght dissever
Fro hir in whom is al my lyght.

– Gower, MS. Cantab. Ff. i. 6

Pronunciation: /drih@/

1) Plattinde (v.) – Journeying forth.

Of hem ne wolde nevere on dwelle,
That he ne come sone /plattinde/,
Hwo hors ne havede, com gangande.

– Havelok, 2282

Pronunciation: /plAtInd@/
2) Encloyde (adj.) – Hurt in the foot. [Note: “enclowed” is defined as
nailed or riveted]

The hors on woche sche rode was blac,
Alle lene and gallyd on the bac,
And haltyd as he were /encloyede/;
Theroff the womman was anoyede.

– Gower, MS. Cantab. Ff. i. 6

Pronunciation: /EnklOId@/

3) Roune (v.) – To whisper. Sometimes for speech or song in general.
It is occasionally used in its primitive sense, to counsel or consult.

On hys knees he sette hym downe
With the prest for to /roune/.

– MS. Harl. 1701

Pronunciation: /run@/
4) Coarte (v.) – To compel, or force.

Dyves by dethe was straytely /coartid/
Of his lyf to make a sodeyne translacion.

– MS. Laud. 416

Pronunciation: /kOArt@/
5) Slade (n.) – A valley; a ravine; a plain.

It had bene better of William a Trent
To have bene abed ith sorrowe,
Than to be that day in the greenwood /slade/,
To meet with Little Johns arrowe.

– Robin Hood, i. 118

Pronunciation: /slAd@/

While Sherwood Forest and King Richard are real, Robin Hood and his Merry Men have long been thought to be fiction. Some things are believed to be impossible to have happened, which is where the speculation comes in about Robin Hood. But researched in England have just found something that proves at the very least the Sheriff of Nottingham existed. Beneath the Galleries of Justice Museum there are caves that have been unearthed which were used as a prison by the infamous Sheriff in medieval times.

The prison caves are where the “shire reeve”, or sheriff, resided at the Shire Hall and County Gaol, which is a medieval terms for jail. They are part of an underground labyrinth of more than 400 man-made sandstone caves and chambers. These caves and chambers date to Saxton times. They have also had many uses over the years, which include cellars, storage areas, secret passageways, and escape routes.

Apparently there was a court on the museum’s site since at least 1375 but the prison was not established until 1449. Locally the caves underneath the museum have been known as the “Sheriff’s Dungeon” but prior to this discovery, there was no proof. Researchers also could only document the caves for their use as a chapel for the Georgian prison that was on the same site after 1780. It is by the documents that were recently discovered by the museum staff that we learn this monumental fact. Finding out that the Sheriff of Nottingham really did exist and used the caves as his prison is a very big find for history.

Of course after a find like this the whole Robin Hood world is in a frenzy. Something that was thought to have been fiction has been proven to be fact. What exactly happened in those prison cells is still unknown. And it may never be known since some facts can be lost to history. But just the fact that the Sheriff was around gives some hope that Robin Hood himself might have existed, even if he was not the hero he has been made out to be.

However it may be that the world will know what happened in those caves. The caves are being excavated along with the adjacent area. And there is an ancient staircase that leads down to the cells which is also being excavated to learn all that historians can about the Sheriff of Nottingham and what he did to his prisoners during his time.